Details about Wudoo

Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left

'Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards 'Alee - as he made wudoo - and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand - he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) - then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad is saheeh].
Washing the Face
The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.

 Allaah ta'ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa'idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan narrates that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) called for water to make wudoo and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim 
Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers
'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhee (no.31), Ibn Maajah (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Haakim (1/14~) who declared its isnaad as saheeh as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan. See the note in al-Baghagawi's Sharh us-Sunnah, 1/421].
Anas (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu'alaihi wa sallam), when he made wudoo , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said This is what my Lord - the Great and Exalted - has ordered me to do. [Abo Dawood (no.145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Haakim (1/149). Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani declares it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami', no.4572)].Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it - then he must repeat the ( wudoo and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishaaq and Abu Thaur.
Most of the scholars however are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory - and that it is clearer that that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khattaabee, 1/56].
Imam Ahmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah - and not obligatory in wudoo . ['Aun al Ma'bood, 1/247]. [TOP]
Washing the Arms Including the Elbows

Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands - which are to be included in this washing - they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the aayah.

Allaah ta'ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa'idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan reports that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) called for water for wudoo and mentioned the Prophet's (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) way of making wudoo - and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim as has preceded].

Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms - scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word "ilaa" (to) in the aayah - does it mean 'up to/until' or 'up to and including' ?

He who says that it means 'up to' does not include the elbows in the washing - just as Allaah ta'ala says: ... thumma 'atimmus-siyaama ilaa -llail: Then complete your fast till the night appears; [soorat-ul-Baqara, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Maalik.

Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is 'up to and including/along with' - and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allaah ta'ala's saying: ...wa yayazidkum quwwatan ilaa quwwatikum...: ...and add strength to your strength; [Soorat-ul-Hud 11:52]

   The proof in this matter is the hadeeth of Nu'aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abu Hurairah make wudoo - he washed his face and completed the wudoo , then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm" - then in the end of the hadeeth he said: "This is how I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo . [Muslim, 1/246]
So, dear reader, it is clear from this hadeeth that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.

Jaabir (radhiAllaahu'anhu) said that when the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallarn) made wudoo , he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by ad-Daaraqutnee (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others - Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami', 4547)].

Wiping the Head and Ears and 'Imaamah

1. Wiping over all of the head as Allaah ta'ala says: ...wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum...: ...rub your heads (with water) [Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7]
Ibn Qudaamah says in 'al-Mughnee': Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only - claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means "part of" as if He had said: "Wipe part of your heads".' However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allaah ta'ala orders us to wipe the faces].

Therefore their saying that the (Baa) means "part of" is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhaan says: 'He who claims that the "baa" means "part of" has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughnee, 1/112].
 Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means "part of" and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the Arabic language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book. (Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).
In the hadeeth of'Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu'anhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means "a part of" - in that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards - beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no.235), at-Tirmidhee (no.28) and others].
2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.
      And it is authentically reported that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by at-Tirmidhee, no.37; Abu Dawood, no.l34 and Ibn Maajah, no.444]. (Declared by ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee to be saheeh - as-Saheehah, 1/36 - and Imam Ahmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]

As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this hadeeth as being da'eef - it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying - and Allaah Knows best.
And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Musayyib, 'Ataa, al-Hasan, Ibn Seereen, Sa'eed ibn Jubair and an-Nakha'ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra'y and Imams Malik and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears
   Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee says in 'ad-Da'eefah', no.995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears - therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head - just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the hadeeth of Ar-Rabee' bint Mu'awwidh that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) "wiped his head with water remaining in his hand". [Reported by Abu Dawood and others with hasan isnaad]. 

The Way of Wiping

  From 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr - about the way of performing wudoo - he said: Then he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa'ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah]. 

Wiping Over the 'Imaamah (Turban) Only
  'Amr ibn Umayyah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/266) and others].

Bilaal (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu'alaihi wa sallam) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159]. [TOP]

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