Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock
Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].
Ibn Qudaamah says in 'al-Mughnee' (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban - that is recorded from Ahmad: as the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped over his turban and forelock - as occurs in the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah.
As for caps/'prayer hats', it is not permissible to wipe over them as Ahmad says for various reasons, from them: (1) They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it. (2) There is no difficulty in their removal.
As for the woman's head cover - it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover - as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See'al-Mughnee', 1/312).
Washing the Feet and Ankles
Allaah ta'ala says: ...wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn...: ...and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].
Ibn 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for 'Asr - so we began to make wudoo and wipe over our feet, so he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].
An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Sahih Muslim after mentioning the hadeeth: Muslim's intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these hadeeth was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet - and that wiping them is not sufficient.
43. In the hadeeth of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from Humraan ibn Abaan that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) called for water for wudoo and then mentioned the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) - then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.
44. As Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) did in Muslim's narration: "Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin" and in the end of the hadeeth said: This is what I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].
From this hadeeth - O Brother Muslim - it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying 'till he reached the shin'.
45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: When the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.148), at-Tinnidhee (no.40) and Ibn Maajah (no.446). Declared as 'saheeh' by al-Albaanee].
As-San'aanee says in 'Subul-us-Salaam' after quoting this hadeeth: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes - and this also occurs in the hadeeth of Ibn 'Abbaas which we have indicated - which is reported by at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim - and authenticated by al-Bukhaaree. And it is done by using the little finger. (See 'Subul-us-Salaam', 1/48).
46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa salam) said Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi' (fingers and/or toes). [Abu Dawood (no.142), at-Tirmidhee (no.37), an-Nasaa'ee (no.114), Ibn Maajah (no.407), al-Hakim (1/148). Al-Albaanee says: Saheeh.]. As-San'aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the hadeeth of Ibn 'Abbaas. [Subul-us-Salaam, 1/47]. [TOP]
47. And Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said ...they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the wudoo (It has preceded, no.7). Meaning the Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.
Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah. [TOP]
Other Aspects of Wudoo
Performing the Wudoo in the Order Mentioned in the Ayaah
As for what is narrated regarding the 'order' as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is nothing to contradict that - and this order is obligatory (waajib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa'eed ibn al Musayyib, 1/64].
As for what is related with regard to the Prophet's wudoo (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:
52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma'd Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) with water for wudoo , so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears - their outsides and insides - and washed each of his feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu Dawood (1/19) with Saheeh isnaad. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnaad is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in 'al-Mukhtaarah'. And al-Albaanee records it in 'as-Saheehah', no.261] .
So this is a proof that he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) did not always stick to the regular order - and this is a proof that it is not obligatory - however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.
As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in 'Aun al Ma'bood' ( 1/48): It is used as a proof - that is the aforementioned hadeeth - by him who says that sticking to the regular order in wudoo is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.
The author of 'Aun al Ma'bood' says: This narration is 'shaadh'  - and therefore not to be taken in contradiction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.
I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of wudoo which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties - then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aayah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the ahaadeeth - and Allaah Knows best. [TOP]
Beginning with the Right
That is washing the right hand before the left - and likewise the feet.
53. 'Aaishah (radhiAllaahu 'annaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no.267) and others].
54. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said When you dress and when you make wudoo , then begin with the right. [Abu Dawood (4141), at-Tirmidhee (1766), an-Nasaa'ee (402). Al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh]. [TOP]
The Du'aa After the Wudoo
'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alahi wa sallam) said None of you makes wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:
Ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu washhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave andMessenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him - so that he enters by whichever he pleases. [Reported by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169), at-Tirmidhee (no.55), an-Nasaa'ee (no.148), Ibn Maajah (no.470)].
Washing Each Body-Part Once
Ibn 'Abbaas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].
Washing Each Body-Part Twice
'Abdullaah ibn Zaid narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].
Washing Each Body-Part Thrice
In the hadeeth of 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) recorded by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) washed each of the parts three times.So from these ahaadeeth it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory - and the second and third washings are Sunnah - and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ['al-Majmoo' of an-Nawawi, 1/229].