WudooWudoo in the Arabic Language:
Wudoo is the action, and wudoo the water used therefor - and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both meaning the verbal-noun and maybe both referring also to the water used.
Wudoo in the Sharee'ah:
Wudoo is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain body parts as Allaah ta'ala has prescribed and explained.
The Components of Wudoo
An Niyyah (Intention) This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform wudoo in obedience to the order of Allaah ta'ala and His Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullaah) said (Majmoo'at-ur-Rasaa-il il-Kubraa 1/243): "The place of the niyyah is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of 'ibaadah - and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars - Purification, Prayer, Zakaat, Sawm, Hajj, 'Itq (freeing of slaves), Jihaad, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart - then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count - by total agreement of all the scholars of Islaam - so the niyyah is the firm intention and resolve itself."
As Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) himself explained in the hadeeth narrated by 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) in the Sahihain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended... [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48]
At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allah's Name)
Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu' anhu) said that Rasoolullah (sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam) said There is no wudoo for him who does not mention Allaah's name upon it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.399), At-Tirmidhee (no.26), Abu Dawood (no.101) and others. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani says: hadeeth Saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaarni', no.7444)].
Imam Ahmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in wudoo, ghusl, and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abu Bakr, and it is the saying of al-Hasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishaaq - as reported by Ibn Qudaamah in 'al-Mughnee' (1/84) and their proof is this hadeeth.
Ibn Qudaamah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the wudoo of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification - just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (Al-Mughnee). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.
As for Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) he held it to be obligatory if the related hadeeth was authentic - as occurs in his Kitaab-ul-Imaan - and the hadeeth is authentic, so therefore his opinion (rahimahullah) is that it is obligatory.
Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim report from Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) sought water for wudoo , so Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made wudoo . Thaabit said: "I said to Anas (radhiAllaahu'anhu): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhaaree, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa'ee, V8].
As for the proof for that which we have stated - it is his (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) saying Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu'akkadah then they base that upon the relative hadeeth being da'eef ( There is no wudoo ... ). However since the hadeeth is saheeh as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allaah Knows Best.
So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown, however the one who forgets should mention Allah's name when he remembers.
Washing the Hands
Humraan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that 'Uthmaan called for water to make wudoo and washed his hands three times... then said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)make wudoo just as I have made wudoo . [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, and as preceded].
Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhaaree doesn't report "three times"].
And in the hadeeth of'Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu'anhu) he was asked about the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made wudoo from it as the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].
Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) who said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo washing his hands three times. [Ahmad (4/9), An-Nasaa'ee (1/55) - with saheeh isnaad].Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq AL-MADMADAH: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.
AL-ISTINSHAAQ: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.
AL-ISTINTHAAR: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq. [TOP]
Washing the Mouth and Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)
'Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a pot of water..until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].
Washing the Mouth
In the hadeeth of 'Amr ibn Yahyaa (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].
Al-Imam an-Nawawi says: And in this hadeeth is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water - washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.
In the hadeeth of'Aa'ishah (radhiAllaahu'anhaa) in which she describes the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) that he said When you make wudoo then wash your mouth. [Al-Baihaqi says: 'Its isnaad is saheeh.' And it contains an addition to the previous hadeeth of 'Aa'ishah in Abu Dawood, no.l43].
Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water
Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you makes wudoo then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abu Dawood (no. 140)].
Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the hadeeth of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) who said: O Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), inform me of the wudoo . He said Complete the wudoo and rub between the fingers and exert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawood, no.l42; At-Tirmidhee, no.38; An-nasaa'ee, no.ll4; IbMaajah, no.407; and others]. (Declared as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haalcim, and adh-Dhahabee agreed to that. Also declared as saheeh by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi's Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417].
It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (waajib). Ibn Qudaamah says in 'al-Mughnee': Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification - Ghusl and wudoo - as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madhhab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ibn Abi Lailaa and Ishaaq, and it is reported from 'Ataa.